Điều khiển nhiệt độ dùng pid

PID what ? How lớn adjust parameters PID ? Which method vì chưng you usually use to determine the parameters of this controller…. Và many other useful information such as history, symbols, applications ... Will be shared in our article today. Please take a moment khổng lồ find out the details below.

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What is PID?

PID is Short for word Proportional Integral Derivative. PID can be understood as a feedback mechanism of the control loop. Used in most types of industrial machinery and equipment. You may not know the most commonly used PID control of all the feedback controls.

According to lớn you, the function of What is PID ? PID Used to calculate error values. Lớn put it simply, it is the difference between the variable parameter measurement value and the required setting value. The PID Controller will maximize the errors by adjusting the input đầu vào values.

What is the concept of PID

How to lớn adjust PID controller parameters

We must first determine together that adjusting the control ring is khổng lồ change its control parameters (Including: gain / scale ratio, gain / reset, differential / speed) to a level of value that responds to optimal user control.

To be able lớn adjust PID is not easy. Even if you have all 3 parameters. This is not to lớn say that there is no way that these tuning methods will often be very complex. Below, the Ocean has synthesized a number of changes in the usual way as follows:

Stability: Volatility is often due khổng lồ excess gain especially when large delays occur. For high stability you need khổng lồ ensure the process does not oscillate.Optimized onions because: To be able to vì chưng this, you should change the process or controller setpoint. Two basic requirements of this method are stability và self-understanding, it will depend on special standards such as start-up time & establishment time. Processes need lớn optimize energy dissipation.
How to adjust PID controller parameters

History of PID controller

Starting in the 1890s the PID controller appeared in the kiến thiết of the governor. Later PID Controller was developed on automated ship systems.

The first appearance of the PID Controller concept was developed by Elmer Sperry in 1911. Later in 1922 Nicolas Minorsky published the first theoretical work on the PID controller. In this book also describes the concept What is PID ? and a lot of that information is still in use today.

This theory is Minorsky developed based on the ship"s pilot"s observations during this time.

Some of the first controllers were: pneumatic, hydraulic, mechanical & electrical systems developed after the Second World War.

History of PID controller

PID editing stages what ?

Calibration diagrams PID is created based on 3 stages, and the sum of these 3 stages is made up of control variables (Symbol: MV).

We have the following specific formula:

MV (t) = phường (out) + I (out) + D (out)

In which: p (out), I (out), D (out) are the output đầu ra components of the three stages of PID control.

1. Stitching rate

Ratio sewing, also known as gain, has the function of changing the đầu ra values, it is proportional to the current error value. Lớn be able to lớn meet the ratio we can multiply by the ratio coefficient Kp.

Khau ti-le

2. Sliding (Drop)

In the absence of noise, then pure proportional control will not be able to determine immediately at the desired value. But it can still maintain a steady-state error và it"s called the slip. It is a function of the proportional gain và the process gain.

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The gain will be proportional to lớn the process and inversely proportional to the gain of the ratio is an unavoidable limitation of pure proportional control. Lớn be able khổng lồ reduce the slip one will usually địa chỉ a deviation factor.

Based on both reality và theory, scale stitching is still essential in the control process, regardless of the slip.

3. Integral stitching

Also known as the reset stage, it is proportional to lớn the error amplitude as well as the time of the error.

The integral factor is determined by the formula:


4. Differential sewing

The amplitude of the differential process distribution over all control states is limited by the differential gain Kd.

To summarize the operation we have: Differential, proportional, integral khổng lồ calculate the main sum by the output đầu ra value of the PID controller. Symbolized as u (t)

Alternative symbols and PID forms

Each PID khung has a different symbol format. So let"s see together what the symbols for each of these PIDs are?

1. Ideal & standard khung of PID control

The controller most suitable for tuning the algorithm is in the standard form. In this mode Kp gain is used in Iout và Dout stitching.

2. The LaPlace khung of the PI control system what ?

In this way, we both have for ourselves a phối of PID in the form of Palace & the transfer function of a control system khổng lồ identify the closed loop transfer function of the whole system easily.

3. Serial or mutual form

This type basically consists of entire control system PD, PI in series. Makes early digital controls easier lớn use. Later, legacy sản phẩm lines often use reciprocal forms. Determination in the figure below.

4. Perform discreteization What is in the PID set?

Some analysis of the thiết kế of a digital PID control above an MCU microcontroller or FPGA device is required in standard form và must be discrete. The integral part will be discrete based on the sample timing chart.

Application of PID controller what ?

Currently, PID is used in many different industries. It can be used to reduce errors, limit vibrations or reduce set-up time và overshoot, etc.

Use khổng lồ control the water level: The controller is automated thanks to lớn electronic devices such as sensors, control valves ...Inverter control: Electronic devices incorporated here include: flow control valve, temperature sensor, inverter control….Control the flow of air through the pipelinePID control in PLC: In the PLC, there will usually be pre-designed functions used lớn regulate temperature, pressure, flow ....
Application of PID controller

Summary What is PID?

With these concepts somewhat academic, but hopefully you can read it over and over again lớn be able to better understand it. With our experience & research, we have gathered the most detailed content to introduce khổng lồ you. What is PID ? Applications & methods of PID determination and correction.